More typical precision parts
processing technology in the practical production, the structure of the parts differ in thousands ways, but the basic geometry structure is cylindrical, inner hole, plane, thread, tooth surface, surface, etc.
There are very few parts are made up of the typical surface, often is composed of some typical surface recombination, its processing method is a typical machining complex surface, is the comprehensive application of typical surface processing method.
Shaft parts, gear box and introduces below parts of the typical machining process.
Shaft parts processing a shaft parts classification, technical requirements of shaft is one of the common typical parts in mechanical processing.
It is mainly used for supporting in mechanical gears, pulleys, CAM and connecting rod drive parts, such as to transfer torque.
Is different, the form of the structure of shaft can be divided into axial, taper spindle, optical axis, hollow shaft, crankshaft, camshaft, eccentric shaft, all kinds of screw, etc. As shown in figure 6 -
1, the wide application of ladder shaft, its processing method can comprehensively reflect the shaft parts processing regularity and commonality.
According to the function of the shaft parts and working conditions, the main technical requirements in the following aspects: (1) dimensional accuracy of the surface of the main shaft parts are often two kinds: one kind is cooperate with the inner ring of the bearing of the cylindrical shaft neck, namely the supporting shaft neck, used to determine the position of the shaft and supporting shaft, high dimension accuracy requirement, usually for IT 5 ~ IT7;
Another kind of journal to cooperate with all kinds of transmission parts, namely the coordinate axis neck, its precision is a bit low, often is IT6 ~ IT9.
2 geometry accuracy refers to the surface of the journal, conical surface, the surface of the cone hole, and other important roundness and cylindricity.
Its error generally should be limited within the scope of the size tolerance, for precision shaft, need on the part drawing shall be separately stipulated the geometry accuracy.
(3) mutual position accuracy include interior and exterior, important on the surface of the shaft alignment, round radial runout and end face important axis of verticality and parallelism between the end face, etc.
(4) the surface roughness of the shaft processing surface roughness requirement, generally determine according to the possibility of processing and economy.
Supporting shaft neck often is 0.
2 to 1.
6 microns, drive a shaft neck of 0.
4 to 3.
5] other heat treatment, chamfering, chamfering and exteriors and other requirements.
Axial parts of the material (1) shaft parts of 45 steel is commonly used, high precision of shaft can choose 40 cr, GCr15 bearing steel, spring steel 65 mn, also can choose ductile cast iron;
Of high speed and overloaded axis, choose 20 crmnti, 20 mn2b, 20 cr and other low carbon alloy steel or 38 crmoal nitrided steel.
2 axial blank common round bar and forgings;
The shaft of the large shaft or complex using casting.
After heating forging blank, can make the metal internal fibre evenly distributed along the surface, high tensile, flexural and torsional strength.
Axial parts of forging blank before machining, heat treatment all needs to arrange the normalizing or annealing treatment, make steel internal grain refinement, eliminate forging stress and reduce the material hardness, improving machinability.
Conditioning is generally arranged in the crude before, half fine car after car, to get good physical and mechanical properties.
Surface quenching general arrangement before finishing, so we can correct the local deformation caused by quenching.
High precision shaft, after partial quenching or coarse grinding, low temperature aging treatment is also required.
Processing after the test piece in small batch production, general use outside micrometer size precision inspection;
When a large number of mass production, often USES smooth limit gauge, length of large, high precision workpiece can examine comparator.
The surface roughness inspection available roughness model;
The demand is higher when the optical microscope was used or contourgraph inspection.
Roundness error of micrometer to measure artifacts are available within the same cross section of the maximum difference of the diameter of the half to determine, dial gauge with v-shaped iron can be used to measure, if conditions permit, can examine roundness instrument.
Usually use micrometer to measure cylindricity error within the same axial profile of the difference between the maximum and minimum value method to determine.
Spindle position accuracy test of general with shaft hole at the top at both ends or process the top hole for the locating datum for the cone plug, above two supporting shaft neck were measured with a dial indicator.
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