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The main reason for the precision machining errors

by:HENRY PARTS     2021-03-19
The machining accuracy refers to the actual geometric parameters (parts processing after Size, shape and position) And the ideal geometrical parameters conform to the degree. In the mechanical processing, error is inevitable, but must be within the scope of the allowed error. Through error analysis, to master the basic law of the change, so as to take corresponding measures to reduce machining error, improve the machining accuracy. Then will appear the error will be for a reason, the reason that we made a summary, roughly the following: 1, the spindle rotation error. The spindle rotation error refers to the actual rotary spindle each moment axis relative to the average amount of changes in the rotation axis. Spindle radial rotation error of the main causes are: main shaft passages trunnion coaxiality error of various error, bearing, bearing itself between the alignment error and spindle deflection, etc. 2, guide error. Guide is on the machine tool benchmark to determine the relations of the relative location of each machine components, and machine tool movement benchmark. Guide the uneven wear and installation quality, it is also an important factor causing error of guideway. 3, transmission chain error. Within the transmission chain of transmission error is refers to the connection at the end of the first in the transmission chain of transmission components of relative motion between the error on both ends. Transmission error is by the transmission chain of each constituent in the manufacturing and assembly error and the wear and tear caused in the process of use. 4, cutting tool geometry error. Any cutting tool in cutting process, inevitably produce wear, and thus cause the change of workpiece size and shape. 5, positioning error. One is the benchmark misalignment error. On the part drawing is used to identify a surface the benchmark which is the basis of the size, location, known as design basis. In working procedure chart is used to determine the process by machining surface after the benchmark which is the basis of the size, location, known as process datum. When the workpiece in the machine tool for processing, need to choose some geometric elements on the workpiece as the locating datum when processing, if the chosen positioning datum and design datum don't overlap, can produce benchmark misalignment error. The second is inaccurate positioning manufacture error. 6, the forced deformation process system error. One is the rigidity of workpiece. Process in the system if the rigidity workpiece relative to machine tool, cutting tool, jig is lower, the cutting force, under the action of artifacts caused by insufficient rigidity and deformation effects on machining precision is large. Second, the cutting tool rigidity. Cylindrical turning tool on the machining surface normal direction stiffness is large, its deformation can be ignored. Boring and smaller inner hole diameter, tool rod stiffness is very poor, tool rod stress deformation has a great influence on the machining accuracy is. Three is rigidity of machine tool parts. Machine tool parts is composed of many parts, machine tool parts stiffness so far there is no suitable simplified calculation method, the current is still mainly used experimental method to determine rigidity of machine tool parts. 7, system error caused by thermal deformation process. Process system thermal deformation has a great impact on machining accuracy, especially in precision processing and bulk processing, sometimes caused by the thermal deformation of machining error can be accounted for 50% of the total error of workpiece. 8, adjust error. In machining of every working procedure, always on the process system to adjust the work of one kind or another. Due to the adjustment could not be absolutely accurate, making adjustment error. In the process system, workpiece and tool based on the location of each other in the machine tool accuracy, is by adjusting the machine tool, cutting tool, jig or artifacts to guarantee. When the machine tool, cutting tool, fixture and workpiece blank the original precision meet the process requirements without considering dynamic factors, the effect of adjusting error, play a decisive role on the machining accuracy. 9, the error of measurement. As measured parts after machining or due to measurement method, the measuring precision and the workpiece and the subjective and objective factors directly affect the accuracy of measurement.
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