Mechanical parts processing plant light material basis and the failure reasons of the product, the material basis for the mechanical parts
: the main parts on the basis of referring to the material in use should have the material properties, including mechanical properties, physical properties and chemical properties.
For most of the parts, mechanical performance is the main index, and characterization of mechanical properties of main parameters of ultimate strength & sigma;
B, the elastic limit & sigma;
E, yield strength & sigma;
S or & sigma;
2, elongation & delta;
And reduction of area & psi.
And impact toughness ak and hardness HRC or HBS.
These parameters in strength is the main performance index and mechanical properties, is only in the case of strength meet the requirements, to guarantee the normal work of the parts, and durable.
In the study of mechanics of materials, has been found that in the design and calculation of parts size or check the dangerous section safety degree when the allowable stress, according to the material strength data.
2, machinery parts processing factory & ndash;
Mechanical parts: the reason of failure failure for various reasons, in the actual production, the parts failure is rarely caused by single factor, is often a result of the combined action of several factors.
Sum up can be divided into the design, materials, fabrication and installation to use four aspects.
Possible reasons are as follows: 1, the design for a is caused by the unreasonable design of structure and shape parts, such as parts of the high stress area there is an obvious stress concentration source (
All kinds of Angle, gap, the transition of the small fillet, etc. ;
Two working conditions of the parts is wrong, such as overload of work may be underestimated, make a design of the components of the bearing capacity is not enough.
2, the reason of material selection is improper material caused the main reason for the failure.
The most common is the designers only to make a decision according to conventional performance index of the material, and these indicators cannot reflect the material; in the failure of some type to force
The defects of material itself,
Such as shrinkage cavity, porosity, porosity, inclusion and micro crack, etc. )
Also result in component failure.
3, processing reasons because of poor process control can cause various defects caused by the failure.
Such as improper heat treatment process control lead to overheating, decarburization, insufficient tempering, etc. ;
Forging process bad banded structure, overheating or burnt, etc;
Bad cold working process cause finish is too low, mark too deep, grinding crack etc can lead to failure parts.
Some defects caused by wrong parts processing and the component design has a lot to do, some defects such as heat treatment.
Part shape and structure design are not ignored brought about the naissance of the heat treatment defect (
Such as distortion, cracking)
In order to avoid or reduce the parts or cracking during quenching and should be paid attention to when designing parts: uneven thickness of cross section, otherwise easy to shelter in thin easy cracking;
Symmetrical structure, adopts closed structure as far as possible avoid a large deformation;
Variable cross-section uniform transition to prevent stress concentration.
4, install and use, and the failure parts when installation, too tight, too loose and fixed on the bad, tight, or improper operation may cause failure in use process.
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