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'Hot' application of ultrashort pulse laser, high precision cutting

by:HENRY PARTS     2021-03-24
More OFwee net news: for the application of high precision, fixed head micro cutting is a kind of potential, in some applications can replace cold melt processing way. The processing method can be further through the cone Angle compensation, gas supply or workpieces process optimization. Ultrashort pulse ( USP) Now has been gradually shifting from the research laboratory to industrial micro processing. Picosecond and FeiMiaoJi other pulse width enables the material to not be liquefied direct gasification. Through cold ablation can be implemented to glass, metal, ceramic and polymer layered removal. Watch industry is using the technology to carry on the fine carving, scanning galvanometer cutting and drilling of composite materials will not cause any heat affected zone ( HAZ) , thus the surface and edge quality (high See figure 1) 。 Figure 1: USP laser micro processing by means of cold melt. Left: on a polymer chip systems laboratory about 200 microns wide microchannel. Whose hands, edge right: high quality copper shows an obvious Angle ( The width of 0. 7毫米) 。 However, for some applications, the use of scanning galvanometer cold melt processing way to get the accuracy and cone Angle is not enough. Cone Angle is generated at the boundary of the cutting seam and partly because of the laser energy density ( The energy per unit area) Where there is lower, in part because materials redeposition. For these applications, using a fixed machining head, gas nozzle and high precision axis is of great advantage. However, the acceleration and speed of the shaft was trivial compared with the scanning galvanometer. Therefore, the introduction of laser heat in the fixed processing of application will be more. Even partial melting materials cannot be completely ruled out this kind of phenomenon. In spite of this, can still maintain the workpiece quality. Compared with solid state laser and the 'hot', the introduction of ultrashort pulse to ensure heat can be controlled in time and space. So, still not thermal effects on the workpiece. With a fixed processing head USP laser micro cutting like a micron range of hot working. More steep edge of the cone Angle and the good quality compared to the scanning galvanometer cold melt processing way, if you can correct with fixed head micro cutting machining, can form a steeper Angle, at the same time maintain good edge quality. Optimization of the nozzle can provide processing gas, under the high pressure in addition to the material cutting seam. In addition to laser parameters, the nozzle geometry and location, as well as processing of gas type and pressure also significantly influence the cutting effect. Another important aspect is that the appropriate artifacts the development of the fixed clamp, at the same time support reliable fixed free cutting and materials ( FIG. 2) 。 To design the import processing, laser system must consider the location of the laser cut and export. When it comes to high precision, and the development of technology and quality control, requires the appropriate measuring equipment, will be able to reliably measure a few microns of tolerance and surface roughness values less than a micron. Figure 2: compared with the scanning galvanometer cold melt processing method, fixed micro cutting head can produce a higher machining precision and steeper Angle. Left: gear of 5 mm in diam. Right: in order to achieve good quality, the nozzle ( At the top) Provide gas and suitable workpieces fixed is indispensable. A fixed optical on metal, silicon and ceramic materials such as micro cutting ( Figure 3) 。 In order to improve the cost efficiency and productivity, can consider to parallel processing. Pass fast high power ultra-short pulse laser TruMicro support the spectroscopic methods ( Figure 4) 。 Figure 3: fixed optical micro cutting ceramics. Left: about 5 mm in diameter, is one of the watch industry application test geometry. Right: sapphire and silicon can also use this method to cut. Subsequent processing method to improve the quality of parts of all subsequent processing may be able to further improve the quality of workpiece. In the case of wire electrical discharge machining and micro milling, can consider to heat treatment to obtain target strength, hardness, or annealing material. In order to optimize the rough surface, if necessary, you can use some chemical mechanical processing method. Laser cutting workpiece, sometimes through electrochemical coating to achieve ideal surface. Watch industry is applying fixed optical micro cutting or drilling machining way one of the most important areas, such as ruby micro bearings, watch the handle or other elements. Figure 4: TruMicro5000 series of picosecond and femtosecond laser can provide the average power of 100 watts, micro pulse energy is as high as 250 joules. Ultrashort pulse width and other parameters, helps to reduce and eliminate the heat affected zone ( HAZ) 。 Designed for drill hole hole machining head in machining process, usually we need to get a steep Angle of 90 degrees. Used for drilling holes, the so-called open hole drilling head can be done. When it comes to more complex geometrical shape of micro cutting, the method also has become more advantage of this type. From the point of view of thermal management, the machining method and the use of precision mechanical shaft fixed head of micro cutting process is similar. Some development work, however, still need to improve existing open hole drilling head, make them become more human, applicable to complex industrial micro cutting applications. An interesting and challenging to choose is the workholder compensation by a tilt Angle, especially for cutting out the artifacts.
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